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Gardening For Wildlife

by Hilda J. Brucker

Chipmunks dart from one spot to the next, occasionally stopping for a cool drink from the goldfish pond. Caterpillars munch copper fennel right down to the ground, without ever encountering a lethal dose of pesticide. In each of five vine-covered arbors songbirds are nesting, while somewhere nearby a raccoon sleeps away the day. And so it goes in the back and front yards of Angela Green, an Atlanta resident whose property is a certified wildlife habitat.

Angela’s rather unique yard started to evolve about three years ago, stemming from her desire to completely do away with her lawn. “It seemed like a waste of time, energy and money,” says Angela. “First you fertilize it to make it grow, then as soon as it does you whack it off. That seems so contradictory to me.” As her lawn shrunk, flower gardens, shrubby areas and eventually a pond sprang up. The fact that Angela’s property backs up to a horse pasture with woods beyond, made it an ideal refuge for all types of “critters,” as Angela calls her wildlife visitors. She has added a wood pile and stone pile to the backyard to provide additional shelter, and every structure on the property does double duty by creating nooks and crannies — for example, all of Angela’s garden benches are closed in and raised up slightly with stones so her critters can hide out underneath.

This backyard habitat, which includes a butterfly and hummingbird garden, has given Angela so much enjoyment that she has just about moved into it, spending most of her time on a large, screened-in porch that provides optimum views of the yard, with all its activity. During the warm months she even sleeps on the porch. The wildlife garden has also captivated neighborhood children.

A Growing Trend
In 1973, the National Wildlife Federation established a program under which homeowners and gardeners could certify their property as a wildlife habitat. In the 1980s and 1990s, with environmental concerns a key issue, interest in the program has skyrocketed. According to Judy Tindall of the Georgia Wildlife Federation, schools, churches and even corporate facilities, such as the UPS world headquarters, are certifying.

In order to certify your property, you must fill out a simple form stating how you have provided food, shelter and water for wildlife. Why go through this process? “The primary motivation is to be part of a mini-network of property owners around the country that are reversing the destruction of natural habitats,” says Judy. “You can actually have a hands-on effect on the environment in your own backyard, even if you can’t do much to stop rain forest destruction.”

Occasionally a homeowner will express a fear of attracting “dangerous” animals that might be harmful to people or pets. “A lot of these fears are not rooted in reality,” says Judy. “The key is education. Take snakes, for example. Once you understand their role in the environment, you have to value them. Some people have concerns about possums or raccoons, but these creatures are typically nocturnal and don’t impact a homeowner. Occasionally we have a rabies problem, so you have to be educated about recognizing atypical behavior.”

Planning Your Backyard Habitat
Basically, all wildlife have four basic needs to survive: food, water, shelter and a safe place to raise young. How you meet each of these needs determines which species you will attract. For example, to attract birds, you may be able to provide shelter as easily as providing a few nesting boxes. To attract small mammals like chipmunks, however, you might have to add a brushpile. The greater the variety of these four elements in your yard, the more diverse your wildlife visitors will be.

Any type of birdbath or garden pond will do, as long as there are shallow spots (place flat rocks inside, if necessary) that give birds and small mammals a safe foothold.

Wildlife relies on shelter for protection from the weather and predators, as well as for sleeping areas and safe travel lanes. Low shrubbery, especially berry bushes that also provide a food source, makes an effective shelter. If it is dense enough, shrubbery can provide a home to ground-nesting birds such as doves and thrushes as well as small mammals like rabbits. You can also construct a brush pile from dead branches, Christmas trees and crepe myrtle prunings to provide this kind of shelter. Stone piles will provide a cool home for garden snakes, toads and lizards; all of which help to control insect populations. Also, consider leaving one or two dead trees standing, to attract cavity-nesters such as woodpeckers.

Places to raise young
For the most part these requirements can be satisfied by meeting basic shelter needs. The exception is birds, which benefit from nesting and roosting boxes. These can be purchased or made at home. Each species has specific requirements for entry-hole size, so contact your county extension office or the Georgia Wildlife Federation for instructions or plans for many types of nesting boxes.

Rather than relying on feeders exclusively, it’s best to let Mother Nature provide a constant source of food by planting shrubs, vines and trees that produce edible nuts, seeds or berries. Holly, beauty berry (Callicarpa Americana) and blackberry together provide nearly four seasons of berries. Oak trees provide acorns, dogwoods and sumac provide red berries through the fall and winter and serviceberry (Amelanchier species) bears edible berries in late spring or early summer.

Birdfeeders are often used to supplement the winter diet of birds. For general feeding, most species will eat black sunflower seed. Ground feeders like doves are partial to a scattering of cracked corn. Suet attracts insectivorous birds such as woodpeckers.

The tips below are aimed at helping you as you plan your wildlife garden, select plants, and shape your yard’s habitats:
1. Use native plant species in your garden.
Native plant species are those plants that naturally occur in your region. To better preserve the unique ecology of your area, use as many native plants as possible in your gardening endeavors.

Native plants attract native wildlife, and the result is improved preservation of your local landscape. For additional information about using native plant species in your garden please refer to the following:
Native plant and wildlife organizations
Wildflower and native plant associations

Recovering vanishing flora
2. Avoid the use of harmful chemicals (fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides). It’s discouraging to see the hard work you spend planting flowers and shrubs disappear when animals set out to have a meal in your garden or a rogue weed takes hold in your flowerbed. We’re often tempted to combat these “pest” species using herbicides or pestisides. But remember, all species are part of nature and the best way you can preserve the health of your garden is to use environmentally friendly means of protecting your plants.
3. Provide a water source for animals that visit your garden. A fresh, clean source of water is a key element to a wildlife garden. Consider placing several water areas throughout the garden, providing some with more shelter so timid animals don’t feel exposed to preditors by having to cross a vast expanse of lawn to get to water.
4. Plan various habitats to attract a wide range of animals. Diversity of habitats in your garden often means diversity of animal visitors. Plan a variety of features if possible, such as a pond area, a grassy area, a wooded area, and so forth.

One of the pleasures of gardening is seeing birds, butterflies and other wildlife enjoying your greening efforts. And it’s good to know that while you are being entertained by nature, you are providing a sanctuary for wildlife that is under threat in its natural habitat.

Courtesy of lifestyle


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