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Ingredient Substitutions (01.11.18)

There is nothing more frustrating than having your heart set on baking or cooking something delicious, only to discover you are out of one (or more) of the ingredients! Or there’s the even worse scenario, where you return from the grocery store without the main thing you went there for in the first place! (I might have done that a time or two… or dozens of times, but who’s counting?) But fret no more,  I’ve compiled a list of ingredient substitutions that can save the day in an ingredient emergency!

Substituting one ingredient for another should only be done when you don’t have the necessary ingredient on hand in your kitchen. Substitutions can change the flavor and outcome of the finished baked goods.

The following chart gives substitutions that may be used to achieve a product similar to the original when cooking. Find out what to substitute when you’re out of an ingredient – but also remember the following when substituting:

When substituting ingredients, take into account the differences in taste, moisture content, texture and weight.

When substituting for sugar and flour, consider the differences in sweetening and thickening power.

Understand the physical and chemical properties of all ingredients.

Measuring accurately will help avoid disappointment.

Ingredient Substitutions

Use substitutions in emergency situations, and keep in mind they may not perform like the original ingredient.

Allspice1 tsp.1/2 tsp. cinnamon and 1/2 tsp. ground cloves
Apple pie spice1 tsp.1/2 tsp. cinnamon, 1/4 tsp. nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp. cardamom
Arrowroot1 1/2 tsp.1 tbsp. flour
1 1/2 tsp. cornstarch
Baking powder1 tsp.1/3 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 tsp. cream of tartar
1/4 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 cup sour milk or buttermilk (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/2 cup.)
1/4 tsp. baking soda and 1/2 tsp. vinegar or lemon juice used with sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/2 cup.)
Bay leaf1 whole1/4 tsp. crushed
Beau Monde1 tsp.1 tsp seasoning or seasoned salt
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. Mei Yen seasoning
Bread1 slice dry1/3 cup dry breadcrumbs
1 slice soft bread3/4 cup soft breadcrumbs
Broth, beef or chicken1 cup1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
1 envelope powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
1 1/2 tsp. powdered broth base dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
Butter1 cup7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat and 1/2 tsp. salt
7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp. salt
1 cup margarine
Buttermilk (sour milk)1 cup1 cup plain yogurt
1 cup whole or skim milk plus 1 tbsp. lemon juice or white vinegar
1 cup milk plus 1 3/4 tsp. cream of tartar
Chili sauce1 cup1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 tbsp. vinegar, 1/4 tsp. cinnamon, a dash of ground cloves, and a dash of allspice
1 cup catsup, 1/4 tsp. cinnamon, dashes of ground cloves and allspice
Chives, finely chopped2 tsp.2 tsp. green onion tops, finely chopped
Chocolate, chips semisweet1 oz.1 oz. sweet cooking chocolate
Chocolate, semisweet1 2/3 oz.1 oz. unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsp. sugar
6 oz. package1 cup
Chocolate, unsweetened1 oz. or square3 tbsp cocoa plus 1 tbsp. fat
Cocoa1/4 cup or 4 tbsp.1 oz (square) unsweetened chocolate (Decrease fat called for in the recipe by 1/2 tbsp.)
Coconut cream1 cup1 cup whipping cream
Coconut milk1 cup1 cup whole or 2% milk
Corn1 dozen ears2 1/2 cups cooked
Cornmeal, self-rising1 cup7/8 cup plain, 1 1/2 tbsp. baking powder, and 1/2 tsp. salt
Corn syrup1 cup1 1/4 cup light brown sugar and 1/3 cup water
7/8 cup honey (Baked goods will brown more.)
Corn syrup, dark1 cup3/4 cup light corn syrup and 1/4 cup light molasses
Cornstarch (for thickening)1 tbsp.2 tbsp. all-purpose flour
2 tbsp. granular tapioca
Cracker crumbs3/4 cup1 cup dry bread crumbs
Cream, heavy
(36% to 40% fat)
1 cup3/4 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
2 to 2 1/2 cup whipped
Cream, light
(18% to 20% fat)
1 cup3/4 cup milk and 3 tbsp. butter or margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted
Cream, whipped Chill a 13 oz. can of evaporated milk until ice crystals form. Add 1 tsp. lemon juice. Whip until stiff.
Dates1 lb.2 1/2 cup pitted
Dill plant, fresh or dried3 heads1 tbsp. dill seed
Egg, whole, uncooked1 large

(3 tbsp.)

3 tbsp. and 1 tsp. thawed frozen egg
2 1/2 tbsp. sifted, dry whole egg powder and 2 1/2 tbsp. lukewarm water
2 yolks and 1 tbsp. water (in cookies)
2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings, and similar mixture)
2 whites as a thickening agent
Eggs, uncooked1 cup5 large eggs
6 medium eggs
Egg white1 large

(2 tbsp.)

2 tsp. thawed frozen egg white
2 tbsp. sifted dry egg white powder and 2 tbsp. lukewarm water
1 cup8 large egg whites
Egg yolk1 yolk

(1 1/2 tbsp.)

3 1/2 tbsp. thawed frozen egg yolk
2 tbsp. sifted dry egg yolk
1 cup12 large egg yolks
Fines Herbes1/3 cup3 tbsp. parsley flakes + 2 tsp. dried chervil + 2 tsp. dried chives + 1 tsp. dried tarragon
Flour, all-purpose (for thickening)1 tbsp.1 1/2 tsp. cornstarch, arrowroot starch, potato starch, or rice starch
1 tbsp. granular tapioca
1 tbsp. waxy rice flour
2 tbsp. browned flour
1 1/2 tbsp. whole wheat flour
1/2 tbsp. whole wheat flour and 1/2 tbsp all-purpose flour
1 tbsp. quick-cooking tapioca
Flour, all-purpose1 cup sifted1 cup and 2 tbsp.cake flour
1 cup rolled oats, crushed
1/2 cup cornmeal or soybean flour and 2/3 cup all-purpose flour
1/2 cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour, or whole wheat flour and 1/2 cup all-purpose flour
3/4 cup whole wheat flour or bran flour and 1/4 cup all-purpose flour
1 cup rye or rice flour
1/4 cup soybean flour and 3/4 cup all-purpose flour
1 lb.4 cups sifted
3 1/3 cups unsifted
Flour, cake1 lb.4 3/4 cups
1 cup sifted1 cup minus 2 tbsp. sifted all-purpose flour (7/8 cup)
Flour, self-rising1 cup1 cup minus 2 tsp all-purpose flour, 1 1/2 tsp. baking powder, and 1/2 tsp. salt
Note: Substitutes for white flours added to most baked goods will result in a reduced volume and a heavier product. Substitute no more than 1/4 of white flour in a cake to ensure success. In other recipes, you can substitute whole wheat flour for 1/4 to 1/2 of white flour.
Fruit, fresh, cut up1 1/2 cups16 oz. can, drained
Garlic1 clove, small1/8 tsp. garlic powder
Garlic salt1 tsp.1/8 tsp. garlic powder plus 7/8 tsp. salt
Gelatin, flavored3 oz.1 tbsp. plain gelatin and 2 cups fruit juice
Ginger1/8 tsp.1 tsp. candied ginger rinsed in water to remove sugar, then finely cut
1 tbsp. raw ginger
Herbs, fresh1 tbsp, chopped1/2 tsp. dried crushed herbs
Honey1 cup1 1/4 cup sugar and 1/4 cup water
Horseradish1 tbsp.2 tbsp. bottled fresh
Ketchup1 cup1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, and 2 tbsp. vinegar (for use in cooking)
Lemon juice1 tsp. juice1/2 tsp. vinegar
Lemon peel, dried1 tsp.1 to 2 tsp. grated fresh lemon peel
grated peel of 1 medium lemon
1/2 tsp. lemon extract
Lime1 medium1 1/2 to 2 tbsp. juice
Maple sugar (grated and packed)1/2 cup1 cup maple syrup
1 tbsp.1 tbsp. white, granulated sugar
Marshmallows, miniature1 cup8-10 regular
Mayonnaise (for salad dressings)1 cup1/2 cup yogurt and 1/2 cup mayonnaise
1 cup sour cream
1 cup cottage cheese pureed in a blender
Mei Yen seasoning1 tsp.1 tsp. Beau Monde seasoning
1/2 tsp. salt
Milk, buttermilk (or sour)1 cup1 cup plain yogurt
1 cup minus 1 tbsp. sweet milk and 1 tbsp. lemon juice or vinegar (Allow to stand 10 minutes at room temperature.)
1 cup sweet milk and 1 3/4 tsp. cream of tartar
Milk, skim1 cup4 to 5 tbsp. non-fat dry milk powder and enough water to make 1 cup or follow manufacturer’s directions
1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water
Milk, sweetened condensed1 can (about 1 1/3 cup)Heat the following ingredients until sugar and butter are dissolved: 1/3 cup plus 2 tbsp. evaporated milk, 1 cup sugar, and 3 tbsp. butter or margarine.
Add 1 cup plus 2 tbsp. dry milk to 1/2 cup warm water. Mix well. Add 3/4 cup sugar and 3 tbsp. melted butter or margarine. Stir until smooth.
Milk, whole1 cup1 cup reconstituted non-fat dry milk (Add 2 tbsp. butter or margarine, if desired.)
1/2 cup evaporated milk and 1/2 cup water
4 tbsp whole dry milk and 1 cup water (or follow manufacturer’s directions)
1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato water (for use in baking)
Mushrooms, fresh1 lb.2 to 3 cup whole
3 oz dried
5 cup sliced
1 10 oz. can (8 oz., drained weight)
Mushrooms, canned4 oz.2 cups sliced fresh
6 tbsp whole, dried mushrooms
Mustard, dry1 tsp.1 tbsp. prepared mustard
Onion, fresh1 smallrehydrate 1 tbsp. instant minced onion
Onion powder1 tbsp.1 medium onion, chopped
4 tbsp. fresh chopped onion
Onions1 lb.3 large onions
2 to 2 1/2 cup chopped
Orange peel, dried1 tbsp.2 to 3 tbsp. grated orange peel
grated peel of 1 medium orange
2 tsp.1 tsp. orange extract
Parsley, dried1 tsp.3 tsp. fresh parsley, chopped
Peppers, green bell1 tbsp. dried3 tbsp .fresh green pepper, chopped
Peppers, red bell1 tbsp. dried3 tbsp fresh red pepper, chopped
2 tbsp chopped pimiento
Peppermint, dried1 tbsp.1/4 cup chopped fresh mint
Pimiento2 tbsp.1 tbsp. dried red bell peppers, rehydrated
3 tbsp. fresh red bell pepper, chopped
Pumpkin pie spice1 tsp.1/2 tsp. cinnamon, 1/4 tsp. ginger, 1/8 tsp. allspice, and 1/8 tsp. nutmeg
Rennet1 tablet1 tbsp. liquid rennet
Shortening, melted1 cup1 cup cooking oil (Substitute only if a recipe calls for melted shortening.)
Shortening, solid (used in baking)1 cup1 cup minus 2 tbsp. lard (7/8 cup)
1 1/8 cups butter (Decrease salt called for in the recipe by 1/2 tsp.)
Sour cream, cultured1 cup3/4 cup sour milk or buttermilk and 1/3 cup butter or margarine
Blend until smooth: 1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 tbsp. lemon juice, and 1 cup cottage cheese
1 cup plain yogurt
3/4 cup milk, 3/4 tsp. lemon juice, and 1/3 cup butter or margarine
Spearmint, dried1 tbsp.1/4 cup chopped fresh mint
Sugar, brown1 cup firmly packed1 cup granulated sugar
1 lb.2 1/4 cups firmly packed
Sugar, granulated1 lb.2 1/4 cups
Sugar, powdered1 lb.2 3/4 cups
Sugar, granulated1 tsp.1/8 tsp. noncaloric sweetener solution or follow manufacturer’s directions
Sugar, granulated1 cup1 1/2 cups corn syrup (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/4 cup.)
1 1/3 cups molasses (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/3 cup.)
1 cup powdered sugar
1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed
3/4 cup honey (Decrease liquid called for in the recipe by 1/4 cup; for each cup of honey in baked goods, add 1/2 tsp. soda.)
Tapioca, granular1 tbsp.2 tbsp. pearl tapioca
Tomato juice1 cup1/2 cup tomato sauce and 1/2 cup water
Worcestershire sauce1 tsp.1 tsp. bottled steak sauce
Yogurt, plain1 cup1 cup buttermilk
1 cup cottage cheese blended until smooth
1 cup sour cream


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